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Engineering science is usually subdivided into number of topics such as
4. Properties of materials and soon Although there are close links between them in terms of the physical principles involved and methods of analysis employed.
The solid mechanics as branch of Mechanical Engineering lab equipment as a subject may be defined as a branch of applied mechanics that deals with behaviours of solid bodies subjected to various types of loadings. This is usually subdivided into further two streams i.e Mechanics of rigid bodies or simply Mechanics and Mechanics of deformable solids.
The mechanics of deformable solids which is branch of applied mechanics is known by several names i.e. strength of materials, mechanics of materials etc.
Mechanics of rigid bodies:
The mechanics of rigid bodies is primarily concerned with the static and dynamic behaviour under external forces of engineering components and systems which are treated as infinitely strong and undeformable Primarily we deal here with the forces and motions associated with particles and rigid bodies.
Mechanics of deformable solids :
Mechanics of solids:
The mechanics of deformable solids is more concerned with the internal forces and associated changes in the geometry of the components involved. Of particular importance are the properties of the materials used, the strength of which will determine whether the components fail by breaking in service, and the stiffness of which will determine whether the amount of deformation they suffer is acceptable. Therefore, the subject of mechanics of materials or strength of materials is central to the whole activity of engineering design. Usually the objectives in analysis here will be the determination of the stresses, strains, and deflections produced by loads. Theoretical analyses and experimental results have an equal roles in this field.
Analysis of stress and strain :
Concept of stress : Let us introduce the concept of stress as we know that the main problem of engineering mechanics of material is the investigation of the internal resistance of the body, i.e. the nature of forces set up within a body to balance the effect of the externally applied forces.
The externally applied forces are termed as loads. These externally applied forces may be due to any one of the reason.
(i) due to service conditions
(ii) due to environment in which the component works
(iii) through contact with other members
(iv) due to fluid pressures
(v) due to gravity or inertia forces.
As we know that in mechanics of deformable solids, externally applied forces acts on a body and body suffers a deformation. From equilibrium point of view, this action should be opposed or reacted by internal forces which are set up within the particles of material due to cohesion.
These internal forces give rise to a concept of stress. Therefore, let us define a stress Therefore, let us define a term stress